# C# Bitwise Operators

Either data or code is saved in computer in binary format. The processor of any machine is running by the machine code or binary code. C# Bitwise Operators process the data bit by bit. Comparing with the boolean value true or false, we're using 0 and 1 to stand for each bit in binary. For example, sbyte stands for 8-bit signed integer type. 13 sbyte type is saved in memory as 00001101 in binary. Then -13 is 10001101. The most left bit is sign bit. 0 means positive and 1 means negative. When bitwise operator is used, the result is based on the calculation bit by bit. In bit level, the truth table is shown below.

AB~A~BA&BA|BA^B
1100110
1001011
0110011
0011000

Then bitwise operators can be shown below and assume A=1(00000001) and B=2(00000010) in the examples.

OperatorNameUsageDescriptionExamples
~Binary Negation~AReturns the negation for each bit.sbyte C = ~A;  //C is 11111110.
&Binary ANDA & BReturns binary AND for each bit of the operands.sbyte C = A & B;  //C is 00000000.
|Binary ORA | BReturns binary OR for each bit of the operands.sbyte C = A | B;  //C is 00000011.
^Binary XORA ^ BReturns binary XOR for each bit of the operands.sbyte C = A ^ B;  //C is 00000011.
<<Left ShiftA << nReturn n times left shift bit of A.sbyte C = A << 1;  //C 00000010.
>>Right ShiftA >> nReturn n times right shift bit of A.sbyte C = B >> 1;  //C 00000001.

Let's check the result in Example 01-11-01

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```using System;

namespace TestLogicalOperators
{
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
sbyte a, b;
a = 1;
b = 2;
Console.WriteLine("a={0}, b={1}", a, b);
Console.WriteLine("~a={0}, ~b={1}", ~a, ~b);
Console.WriteLine("a&b={0}", a&b);
Console.WriteLine("a|b={0}", a|b);
Console.WriteLine("a^b={0}", a^b);
Console.WriteLine("a<<1={0}", a<<1);
Console.WriteLine("b>>1={0}", b>>1);
}
}
}
```

Output

```a=1, b=2
~a=-2, ~b=-3
a&b=0
a|b=3
a^b=3
a<<1=2
b>>1=1```
• Line 9-11: Declare 2 sbyte variables a, b and its initial values.
• Line 12: Output x, y.
• Line 13: Output ~x and ~y. ~x is 11111110 which is -2. For negative number representation, please check here.
• Line 14: Output the result of x&y result 00000000.
• Line 15: Output the result of x|y result 00000011.
• Line 16: Output the result of x^y result 00000011.
• Line 17: Output the result of x<<1 result 00000010.
• Line 18: Output the result of x>>1 result 00000001.